Location: Southern Asia, between China and India
Geographic coordinates: 280 N, 840 E
Map references: Asia
Area: Total: 147,181 Sq Km
Land: 143,181 Sq Km
Water: 4,000 Sq Km
Area comparative: Slightly larger than Arkansas
Land boundaries: Total: 2,929 km border countries: China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: None (landlocked)
Climate: Varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
Terrain: Terai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north
Elevation extremes: Lowest point: Kechana Kalan 70 m highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m
Natural resources: Quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Land use: Arable land: 21.68%, permanent crops : 0.64%, other: 77.68% (2001)
Irrigated land: 11,350 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: Severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
Environment: Deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives)
Current issues: Contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions.
Environment-party to: Bio-diversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the sea, Ozone Layer Protection.
International agreements: Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation.
Geography Note: Landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world’s 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest (the world’s tallest ) on the border with China